Sunday, March 15, 2020

The Brezhnev Doctrine

The Brezhnev Doctrine The Brezhnev Doctrine was a Soviet foreign policy outlined in 1968 which called for the use of Warsaw Pact (but Russian-dominated) troops to intervene in any Eastern Bloc nation which was seen to compromise communist rule and Soviet domination. It could be doing this either by trying to leave the Soviet sphere of influence or even moderate its policies rather than stay in the small parameters allowed to them by Russia. The Doctrine was seen clearly in the Soviet crushing of the Prague Spring movement in Czechoslovakia which caused it to be first outlined. Origins of the Brezhnev Doctrine When the forces of Stalin and the Soviet Union fought Nazi Germany west across the European continent, the Soviets did not liberate the countries, like Poland, which were in the way; they conquered them. After the war, the Soviet Union made sure these nations had states who would largely do what they were told by Russia, and the Soviets created the Warsaw Pact, a military alliance between these nations, to counter NATO. Berlin had a wall across it, other areas had no less subtle instruments of control, and the Cold War set two halves of the world against each other (there was a small non-aligned movement). However, the satellites states began to evolve as the forties, fifties and sixties passed by, with a new generation taking control, with new ideas and often less interest in the Soviet empire. Slowly, the Eastern Bloc began to go in different directions, and for a brief time it looked like these nations would assert, if not independence, then a different character. The Prague Spring Russia, crucially, did not approve of this  and worked to stop it. The Brezhnev Doctrine is the moment Soviet policy went from verbal to outright physical threats, the moment the USSR said it would invade anyone who stepped out of its line. It came during Czechoslovakias Prague Spring, a moment when (relative) freedom was in the air, if only briefly. Brezhnev described his response in a speech outlining the Brezhnev Doctrine: ...each Communist party is responsible not only to its own people, but also to all the socialist countries, to the entire Communist movement. Whoever forgets this, in stressing only the independence of the Communist party, becomes one ­ sided. He deviates from his international duty...Discharging their internationalist duty toward the fraternal peoples of Czechoslovakia and defending their own socialist gains, the U.S.S.R. and the other socialist states had to act decisively and they did act against the anti-socialist forces in Czechoslovakia. Aftermath The term was used by the Western media and not by Brezhnev or the USSR itself. The Prague Spring was neutralized, and the Eastern Bloc was under the explicit threat of Soviet attack, as opposed to the previous implicit one. As far as Cold War policies go, the Brezhnev Doctrine was entirely successful, keeping a lid on Eastern Bloc affairs until Russia gave in and ended the Cold War, at which point Eastern Europe rushed to assert itself once more.

Friday, February 28, 2020

Should Pornography Be Restricted by Law Term Paper

Should Pornography Be Restricted by Law - Term Paper Example The web has a reputation for being an uncontrolled and chaotic mass of information that scares some people as much as it intrigues others. Pornography has also carved out a substantial niche in this new media environment, proving that, perhaps, whether one likes it or not, pornography is not stopping, and is everywhere, especially in terms of dominating new media applications such as the web and the home video business (and now DVDs). This is a very profitable industry worldwide in a free market. a coded and polarized argument. On a societal level, pornography has positive and negative effects, but within the polarized and polemical arguments of advocates and censors, there tends to be more of a one-sided perspective. The objectification of women is one issue that centers a societal treatment of pornography, but again, in speaking (and asking questions) in a societal form, once misses out on the crux of the issue: is the individual to be free to pursue pornography, or is the society to be protected from it? Most women are objectified in pornography, but does this necessarily mean that they have to be objectified by it as consumers of it? Again, the issue is more one of the society and the individual being seen to be at odds in terms of representative and respective freedom (individual) and protection (society). Studies have contested that in none of the behavioral studies on pornography and violence â€Å"‘has a measure of motivation such as likelihood to rape ever ch anged as a result of exposure to pornography.’ Men who are already predisposed to violent attitudes toward women may be more sexually aroused by violent materials.  

Tuesday, February 11, 2020

Poverty in Sierra Leo Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Poverty in Sierra Leo - Essay Example The destruction of the infrastructure and the decline of the economy led to impoverishing of various communities. Such poverty was evidenced by poor health and nutrition indicators. The economy of Sierra Leone has for a considerably long time been distinguished by high unemployment and inflation rates (Christiaensen et al, 2002). Majority of the unemployed youths are former combatants that have no stable source of income. Such unemployed youthful population remains a principal threat to national security and economic stability. In simpler terms; unemployed youths enhance insecurity and other social evils such as prostitution. This paper seeks to explain poverty in the context of Sierra Leone, a country that has been defined as the poorest country in the world for a considerably long time. Sierra Leone is a third world nation or banana republic in West Africa. It has a total population of just about six million people from different communities and a diversity of cultures. Considered one of the most financially weakest countries in the entire world, Sierra Leone is not expected to be self-sufficient anytime soon, thanks to the ten-year-old internal armed conflict (Fosu, 2009). The civil war that lasted from late nineteen ninety to mid two thousand and two was brought to a standstill by the joint effort of such African countries as Kenya and Nigeria. The African Union made a unanimous decision to intervene after the war proved to be endless and detrimental to the interests of the economy as a whole. Today, Sierra Leone is one of the countries gaining economic stability having indicated a 7% per annum growth rate. Sierra Leone has placed reliance on international donors and well-wishers for the reconstruction of the entire economy. Democratization and stabilization of the political climate are among the major concerns of the civilized members of the society. According to UN agencies, Sierra Leone is fast moving towards macroeconomic stability. This is to say that the third world country has invested a lot of time and resources in dealing with such macroeconomic variables such as unemployment, inflation, and population growth rate (Manson & Knight, 2009). Among the poorest people in Sierra Leone are the people rendered landless by the internal armed conflicts. Small-scale farmers and single mothers heading families constitute a great percentage of the poor rural population. People that were internally displaced by the civil war are destitute and own or access no resources. As such, they resort to such desperate measures as begging or working for little pay so as to support their survival. It is estimated that 75% of the people of Sierra Leone live below the poverty line, with 27% living in extreme abject poverty. This was according to a 2005 research, which established that fifty percent of the entire populace lives on slightly less than one US dollar per day. According to the records of the year 2005, 80% of the people living in the rural ar eas lived in extreme poverty. Similarly, the people of the eastern districts were hard hit by the civil strife and lived in extreme poverty (Manson & Knight, 2009). Internal displacement was a common phenomenon that was brought about by fear and lack of foresight.

Friday, January 31, 2020

Fire Protection system Essay Example for Free

Fire Protection system Essay Aqueous and non- aqueous agents employed in fire service means the use of such substance in the fire service work which helps in fast control and quick remedial measures against the broken out. Substantially non- aqueous, plastic, high magnesium oxide are used so that materials remain fluid over longtime providing for easy workability and require no addition of water prior to use. In the same manner aqueous substance in form of concentrated ammonium salt containing binder and viscosity agent are used by fire service provider to prevent wildfires. For decreasing the toxicity of the chemicals used in fire service organization, non- aqueous and aqueous fluid is used to provide easy control over heavy fire. Non–aqueous compositions are used containing an amount of volatile silicon which helps to maintain waterproof composition than previous conventional non- aqueous substance used by fire service provider. In recent time various aqueous mixtures containing tricalcium phosphate are used as it is experienced that when the mixture is used fire os frequently extinguished and even the fire did not catch up readily. Aqueous substances are treated as fire control agent as it has great adhesive power when applied to extinguish fire. Aqueous film foaming foam is a special type of foam stabilizer which is diluted with water and exclude air from mixing the water and thereby suppressing the fire. Various factors are to be considered while selection of an agent by fire service provider as it directly and indirectly affects the decision. The fire agencies need to take help and identified the problem of reduction in fuel, cost sharing efforts and wild land fire problems. Fire agencies should take necessary action to meet the fire expenditure cost and to respond to fire areas at fast speed. Fire service providers have to base their decision on the chances of fire broke out, fuels available in form of various chemicals, devices or material needed, air tanker having with the company , their capacity , any agency, state or government organization participating, location or fire station and flame resistant synthetic fabric used in fire fighting. These fire service’s should comply while selecting or appointing any agent and it can be done after adopting the following procedures such as record keeping system, providing instructions at regular interval, risk assessment, inspection or regular review of guidelines to make it more meaningful, cleaning and decontamination procedure, preparing policy for repair and in the same way for store. With the adoption of above mentioned methodology the agent selected should be more beneficial for specific fire and thus more efficient development of fire service agent. REFERENCE Referred to sites: 1. http://scofmp. org/glossary. html Glossary of Wild land Fire Terms 2. http://www. tcfp. state. tx. us/standards/SOP_template. asp Standards and Certification Compliance Template for Newly Required SOPs 3. http://www. patentstorm. us/patents/6345632-description. html Method of cleaning and passivating a fire protection system Dated 23rd August 2007

Thursday, January 23, 2020

Molybdenum :: Chemistry Essay

Molybdenum is a transition metal. It is represented by the symbol Mo. It is a pure metal that is is silverish white in color and very hard, and has one of the highest melting points of all pure elements at 4753  °F. Its boiling point is 8382  °F. Its density is 10280 kg/m3 and its hardness is 5.5. It has a molar volume of 9.38 Ãâ€"10-6 m3/mol.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Molybdenum has an atomic weight of 95.94 amu. Its atomic number is 42. The atomic radius is 145 pm and the covalent radius is 145 pm also. Its electron configuration is [Kr]4d^5 5s^1. It is a strong acid. Its crystal structure is body centered cubic.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Over 2/3 of all molybdenum is used in alloys. Molybdenum use increased a lot during World War I, when demand for tungsten made tungsten rare, and strong steels were at expensive. Molybdenum is used in aircraft and missile parts, and in filaments. Molybdenum acts as a catalyst in the petroleum industry for removing organic sulfurs from petroleum products.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Molybdenum is not found in nature, and the compounds that can be found were, until the late 1700s confused with other elements, such as carbon and lead. In 1778 Carl Wilhelm Scheele discovered that molybdenum was separate from graphite and lead, and was able to isolate the oxide of the metal from molybdenite. Molybdenum was rarely used and stayed in the laboratory until the late 19th century.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Plants and animals generally have molybdenum, present in very small amounts.

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Afterschool program Essay

The combined efforts of the Washington, DC School system and the Woodson Foundation in the development of an Afterschool program to help increase and improve student outcomes. They have identified amply room for improvement. Three of the primary problems in the Washington, DC School systems are truancy, low student performance, and crime. They have also identified new staff (teachers) are quickly burnet out due to their initial enthusiasm in to want to help the students. This has caused a high turnover rate in new teachers, causing the school system to lose some of the best and brightest teachers to other school system in the area. The first stage in building a coalition is to select a representative from each of the organizations which will be involved in the program. This will give equal representation across the team. It has been identified that an Executive Development team should be established. This team will span across a multifunctional area to establish an operating plan for improving school performance. Participation from the Woodson Foundation and Washington, DC School system is the key element of a successful Executive Development team. However, representation from the National Coalition for Parental Involvement in education (NCPIE) should be considered, because they represent for the parent on the behalf of the PTA. The Coalition is in the forming stage of group development. A representative from each of the organizations will need to be assigned to the group. Then the group will need to figure out the groups purpose, structure, and the leadership of the group. In order for the Woodson Foundation to create this cohesive group, the stages of group development will need to be followed. The next step in the group development is storming. The representatives of the different organizations accept that the Executive Development team is needed, however each organization has their own principles they feel is important to the development. The leader is also established in this stage and there is a clear hierarchy of leadership. The third phase is Norming: In this stage, the Executive Development team has a solid group structure and a set of common expectations. Roles are established within this cohesive group.  The fourth stage is Performing: The structure of the Executive Development team is functional and all members accept it. The team is performing the tasks at hand and successfully completing them. The fifth stage is Adjourning. Even though the team is adjourning, they will collect the detailed analysis and put together a presentation of the Operational plan for improving the student’s performance in the After School program. Their findings will give clear direction of how to get the ASP going. One of the primary problems the Woodson Foundation is facing is what organization will lead the Executive Development team. In order for the leaders to lead this primary team, strong leadership and management is needed for top effectiveness. Today’s leaders should challenge themselves to identify status quo, create visions for the future, and inspire organizational members to want to achieve organizational goals and visions. The representatives from each organization of the Executive Development team, has their own vision as to why their organization should take the lead in building the team. The secondary problem the Woodson Foundation is to identify goals and objectives. The Woodson Foundation primary objective is outsider involvement to get a bigger and clearer picture of the program. NCPIE primary objective is having parent imput. They feel the Woodson Foundation can come in and do all they want, however if the parents do not participate the program will not work. Washington, DC School system primary objective is to let the professionals get the job done. The administrators feel they have the background, education, and expertise to spear head the program. These various backgrounds will enable the Executive Development team members, to have an understanding of the needs of the children participating in the ASP. One solution to the problem is building trust between coalition members and parents. The leadership will need to create an environment of trust that is conducive to all. Trust facilitates information sharing, encourages taking risks. However, trust builds a more effect team and enhances productivity (Robbins, pg 315). My second solution would be to identify and define clear responsibilities within the group. Each individual must be responsible and successfully complete research, presentations, and analysis for their areas of focus. This can clearly be accomplished by soliciting input from other team members (Robbins, pg 316). Each member of the group should have some type of training in managing diversity, conflict resolution, team building, and team cohesiveness. All members should have a clear understanding of their roles within the group and promote a climate of trust. Having a clear understanding of the leadership and its structure would better serve the Executive Development team’s primary function. Work Cited Robbins, Judge, Stephen P., Timothy A. Organizational Behavior. 15th Edition. Pearson Learning Solutions, 2012. VitalBook file. Bookshelf.

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Indirect and Direct Characterization on To Kill A Mockingbird - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 956 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2019/03/15 Category Analytics Essay Level High school Topics: Characterization Essay To Kill a Mockingbird Essay Did you like this example? The novel titled, To Kill A Mockingbird, by Harper Lee is a story set in the small town of Maycomb, Alabama, during the depression in the 1930s. The story is told by a little six-year-old girl, Jean Louise Finch nicknamed Scout. She is a rebellious girl who has tomboy tendencies. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Indirect and Direct Characterization on To Kill A Mockingbird" essay for you Create order Scout lives with her elder brother Jem, and her father, Atticus, who is widowed. The book follows the family for three years where it discusses the arrest and eventual trial of a young black man, Tom Robinson, who is accused of raping a white woman. It also mentions how Scout and Jem befriend a boy named Dill who becomes fascinated with the spooky house on their street called the Radley Place. The house is owned by Mr. Nathan Radley, whose son Arthur (Boo), has lived there for years without venturing outside. To Kill A Mockingbird depicts discrimination against race and gender by showing examples of each of these in the everyday lives of the Finches and reveals why the novel is still relevant today. In To Kill A Mockingbird, Harper Lee illustrates discrimination against race by displaying many examples throughout the book, in the lives of the Finch family. One example of this is when Scout is at Finchs Landing for Christmas. During her visit one of her cousins named Francis approaches her and says, I guess it aint your fault if Uncle Atticus is a nigger-lover besides, but Im here to tell you it certainly does mortify the rest of the family (Lee 83). This is one instance of race discrimination because it shows how people are now hating on Atticus for defending black man. So, this goes to show that even Atticus own family is talking bad about him just because his client is colored which is extremely racist. Another example of this is when after Tom Robinson was named guilty and Atticus had to explain to Jem how in the world that could be possible and said, In our courts, when its a white mans word against a black mans, the white man always wins (Lee 220). This shows race discrimin ation because even the courts back then would favor white men over people who were colored. This was not okay because if its a matter of life or death people shouldnt have to die just because of the color of their skin. Finally, race discrimination is one of many types of discrimination that occurred in the Finches lives. In the book, Harper Lee reveals many instances of gender discrimination and how it affects the everyday lives of a specific family during the 1930s. When Dill and Jem wanted to look through the shutter of the Radley place Scout began to protest this idea and Jem said, Scout, Im tellin you for the last time, shut your trap or go home I declare to the Lord youre gettin more like a girl every day! (Lee 51). Here, through gender discrimination Jem uses it to get his way to insult Scout about her acting like a girl. Whenever she does something he does not like he gets away with bringing up the whole girl stereotype argument by calling her a girl. I doubt if wed ever get a complete case triedthe ladiesd be interrupting to ask questions (Lee 220). This is another example on how the author demonstrates gender discrimination in To Kill A Mockingbird because the polite fiction of the South is that women are delicate and need to be protected. Maybe the men are really just afraid that women woul d use power in a way that men wouldnt like. Thus, Harper Lee shows multiple examples on race and gender discrimination through the life of Scout. The novel also reveals effects of race and gender discrimination today by describing examples that are still relevant. In an article titled, Racism and its effects on society on it talks about how still to this date there are Families of a certain color or racial group living in poverty and poor conditions, unable to rise out of their disadvantaged state through the prejudice of employers which keeps them in low-paid positions. ( 2018). This connects with the book because during the book they talk about the place where the colored folk live and how they live in poverty and have very little money. This important because it demonstrates how there are still some forms of racial discrimination happening in our world today. In another article titled, Gender discrimination comes in many forms for todays working women on they talk about how, one-in-four working women (25%) say they have earned less than a man who wa doing the same job ( 20 18). Although, in the 1930s it was not very popular for women to work at all, still today women are having trouble being paid the same as a man. This proves that there is still such thing as gender discrimination in our world today. In conclusion, To Kill A Mockingbird depicts discrimination against race and gender. It does this by showing examples of each of these in the everyday lives of the Finches and reveals why the novel is still relevant today. The novel has many examples of race and gender discrimination however we need to be aware that this still continues today. The discrimination may not be as bad as the 1930s but it is still important and needs to me diminished. People should not have to feel less important or valued because of their race or gender. Sooner or later we must realize that we must develop a tolerance or undertsaninf for those who are different fromourselces. We must raise anew generation of tolerant indivisulas who embrace diversity and value all members of society equally.